Une suggestion pour améliorer la Constitution européenne

La perspective de multiples référendums sur la Constitution de l'Union européenne a considérablement modifié ses chances de ratification. Tant les europhiles que les eurocrates tremblent à l'idée qu'un rejet par plusieurs Etats membres, notamment les pays les plus importants, n'enterre le projet, auquel cas l'UE devra se débrouiller avec le Traité de Nice. Mais si les protagonistes font preuve de patience, le souffle de la démocratie pourrait favoriser l'émergence d'une Constitution plus solide, sans le risque d'un cauchemar économique et juridique que certains aspects du projet actuel laissent entrevoir.

L'UE doit rapidement démocratiser ses procédures et réorganiser ses institutions pour que l'élargissement qui vient d'avoir lieu ne conduise pas à une impasse bureaucratique. Le projet de Constitution comporte des solutions acceptables à nombre de questions de gouvernance. Auparavant, le chapitre social ne figurait que dans la liste des bonnes intentions. Son élévation au statut de droit constitutionnel fondamental risque d'entraîner les travailleurs et les entreprises des Etats membres à se débattre dans de lourdes démarches administratives et de les confronter à l'application de droits sociaux coûteux, conçus par les juges du Luxembourg dont la décision est sans appel.

L'inclusion dans la partie II du projet des "droits sociaux" tels que celui de ne pas être injustement licencié ou celui de recevoir une retraite, des indemnités de chômage et une assurance maladie (quel qu'en soit le coût) n'est pourtant en aucune façon nécessaire au bon fonctionnement de l'édifice. Ces mesures sont sans doute dignes d'éloge, mais elles ont un coût.

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