权利改革

眼下,很多经济学家都承认:制度的好坏决定着经济的繁荣。富有的国家保护投资者的产权,实行法治,把个人动机和社会目标有效地结合在一起。货币和财政政策的基础牢固,由社会保险负责风险调节,每个公民都有权选择公民自由和政治主张。穷国则要么没有这样的保证,要么保证体系很不健全。

比比俄国和中国的情况就清楚了。在俄国,投资者受到私有财产制度百分之百的保护,由独立司法系统负责具体实行。而在中国,根本谈不上有什么保护,因为不久前法律才刚刚承认了私有财产,也根本没有独立的司法体系。

但20世纪90年代中后期,投资者在法治方面给中国的评分都比俄国高。投资者感到在中国受到更好的保护,这在过去10年来熟悉俄国法律体系变迁的人看来,也并不那么令人惊讶。但重要的一点是:制度和人们的认识之间到底有多大差距。

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