wind turbine Bloomberg/Getty Images

El tiempo correcto para la acción en materia climática

PARÍS – Durante gran parte de las aproximadamente tres décadas que transcurrieron desde que el cambio climático se convirtió en una preocupación global, los gobiernos, de por sí optimistas, supusieron que una transición verde sucedería de modo natural con el tiempo, en tanto los precios en alza de los combustibles fósiles fueran empujando a los consumidores hacia alternativas de bajo contenido de carbono. El impedimento, se creía, estaba en el lado de la producción, ya que los suculentos retornos generados por las inversiones en campos petrolíferos impulsaban una exploración cada vez más ambiciosa.

Hoy, las cosas han cambiado. Los precios del petróleo languidecen en unos 40 dólares por barril y esto hace que las compañías de combustibles fósiles no necesiten que los gobiernos les pidan que dejen de invertir. El desafío se ha trasladado al lado del consumo en la ecuación. Con los precios del combustible tan bajos, ¿qué se puede hacer para cambiar los patrones de consumo?

Sin duda, existen algunas señales de que la energía más barata podría generar suficiente crecimiento como para hacer subir nuevamente los precios del petróleo. Pero nadie predice un rebote lo suficientemente fuerte como para impulsar la transformación radical que hará falta si los países pretenden cumplir con sus objetivos de reducción de las emisiones.

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