分歧与驾驭

巴黎——

欧洲和美国就像是一对战时团结、战后翻脸的兄弟,2009年还在携手共抗经济萧条,2010年就开始出现分歧,到了2011年,宏观经济政策立场已经大相径庭了。分歧可能会造成相当严重的代价:尽管最坏的阶段已经过去了,但正如G20所呼吁的,全球经济再平衡仍远未结束,有效的政策合作仍是当务之急。

货币政策态度是大西洋两岸政策分歧的一大重要方面。去年11月,美联储决定实施新一轮“量化宽松”(即通过创造新货币购买政府债券),在欧洲引起了一片批评。尽管欧洲央行自去年春天开始便一直在购买政府债券,但买入数量并不大(700亿欧元,而美联储的计划是6 000亿美元),目的也只是为了支持陷入困境的欧元区成员国,因此进行的小心翼翼,唯恐对货币供给产生影响。

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