Los cosmopolitas de la política monetaria

NEWTON, MASSACHUSETTS – ¿Se imaginan a un ciudadano francés elegido presidente de los Estados Unidos? ¿O a un japonés como primer ministro del Reino Unido? ¿O un mexicano, canciller de Alemania? Probablemente no. De hecho, aun si no hubiera impedimentos legales, resulta difícil imaginar que los votantes de una democracia designen a un extranjero para ocupar el cargo más importante del gobierno de su país.

Pero a lo largo de los últimos años, cada vez más países eligieron extranjeros y personas con considerable experiencia en el exterior para asumir lo que en general se considera la segunda posición más importante dentro de un país: la jefatura del banco central. ¿A qué se debe este cambio? ¿Es algo para celebrar o para desalentarlo?

Por ejemplo, Stanley Fischer (propuesto en enero por el presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, para suceder a Janet Yellen en la vicepresidencia de la Reserva Federal) es un inmigrante del sur de África, naturalizado estadounidense, que se desempeñó como director del Banco de Israel desde 2005 hasta el año pasado. Y en julio de 2013, Mark Carney, un canadiense que fue director del banco central de su país de origen, se convirtió en el primer director extranjero del Banco de Inglaterra en sus casi 320 años de historia.

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