Le cosmopolitisme monétaire

NEWTON, MASSACHUSETTS – Imagineriez-vous un citoyen français élu président des États-Unis ? Un Japonais au poste de Premier ministre du Royaume-Uni ? Ou encore un Mexicain au mandat de chancelier de l’Allemagne ? Probablement pas. En effet, même s’il n’existait aucun obstacle juridique en la matière, il serait difficile d’imaginer les électeurs d’une démocratie désigner un étranger au plus haut poste de l’État.

Pourtant, ces dernières années, les États se sont de plus en plus tournés vers des personnes d’autres origines, à l’expérience internationale significative, pour leur conférer un mandat généralement considéré comme le deuxième poste le plus important d’un pays : la présidence de la banque centrale. Quels ont été les moteurs d’une telle évolution ? Faut-il la saluer ou la regretter ?

Stanley Fischer a par exemple été nommé en janvier par le président américain Barack Obama à la succession de Janet Yellen au poste de vice-président de la Réserve fédérale, pourtant immigrant américain originaire du sud de l’Afrique et ayant exercé en tant que gouverneur de la Banque d’Israël, de 2005 jusqu’à l’année dernière. De même, Mark Carney est devenu en juillet 2013 le premier étranger à diriger la Banque d’Angleterre en quelque 320 années d’existence, ce Canadien ayant occupé le poste de gouverneur de la banque centrale de son pays natal.

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