永远的自由贸易

发自马萨诸塞州牛顿市——12月7日,来自世界贸易组织159个成员国的代表达成了WTO 成立19年以来的第一个多边贸易协议。虽然贸易促进协议——因会议在印尼岛举行而被命名为“巴厘岛一揽子计划”——并未解决最紧迫的南北半球贸易不均衡贸易问题,但它仍然是一个重要的经济和政治里程碑。

巴厘岛一揽子计划规定WTO成员要朝着降低非关税贸易壁垒方向发展——例如,通过建立更透明的海关法规和减少相关贸易文件。这些变化可能看起来有点官僚主义,但协议的影响——增加1000亿美元的全球产出,并世界各地创造2100万个职位——将是巨大的。

外界有批评认为该协议未能满足WTO2001年在多哈发展议程设定的目标。但这些目标——包括改善农业,制造业和服务业的市场准入机制;厘清国际贸易规则;并在解决环境问题上取得进展——有点过于雄心勃勃了。即使较温和的巴厘岛一揽子计划可以启动,但要在像印度农业补贴和美国对古巴禁运等有争议问题上达成一致,还需额外时日。

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