Закат восходящей мобильности

НЬЮ-ЙОРК – Озабоченность по поводу экономического неравенства «висит в воздухе» почти везде. Вопрос не в неравенстве между странами, которое действительно уменьшилось за последние десятилетия, в значительной степени благодаря более высоким темпам роста и увеличению продолжительности жизни во многих развивающихся странах (особенно в Китае и Индии). Скорее сейчас в центре внимания находится неравенство – иногда называемое также диспаритетом доходов – внутри стран.

Одна из причин заключается в том, что проблема неравенства реальна – и усугубляется во многих местах. За последние десятилетия благосостояние и доход в большей степени сконцентрировались в руках верхушки, – так называемой 1%-ной прослойки, – в то время как реальные доходы и уровень жизни бедняков и среднего класса во многих развитых странах остались на том же уровне или упали.

Это было верно и до глобального экономического кризиса, разразившегося в 2008 году, но кризис и его последствия (в том числе длительный высокий уровень безработицы) ухудшили положение. И, несмотря на несколько заметных исключений в северной Европе и некоторых частях Латинской Америки, усиление неравенства затронуло как развитые, так и развивающиеся страны.

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