Úpadek vzestupné sociální mobility

NEW YORK – Téměř všude jsou ve vzduchu obavy z ekonomické nerovnosti. Potíže nedělá nerovnost mezi zeměmi, která ve skutečnosti v posledních desetiletích klesá, velkou měrou díky vyšším tempům růstu a vyšší délce dožití v mnoha rozvíjejících se zemích (zejména v Číně a Indii). Pozornost se dnes upírá spíš na nerovnost uvnitř zemí, občas nazývanou příjmovou disparitou.

Jedna příčina tkví v tom, že problém nerovnosti skutečně existuje – a na mnoha místech se zhoršuje. V posledních desetiletích se bohatství a příjmy koncentrovaly na vrcholu, u takzvaného 1 %, zatímco reálné příjmy a životní úrovně chudých a střední třídy v mnoha vyspělých zemích stagnují nebo klesají.

To platilo už před propuknutím globální finanční krize v roce 2008, ale krize a její důsledky (včetně vleklých vysokých hladin nezaměstnanosti) situaci ještě zhoršily. A navzdory několika pozoruhodným výjimkám v severní Evropě a částech Latinské Ameriky postihuje vzestup nerovnosti jak vyspělé, tak rozvíjející se země.

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