向上流动性的下降

纽约—几乎全世界所有地方都在关注经济不平等性。问题不在于国家间的不平等——由于许多新兴国家(特别是中国和印度)增长率更高、寿命变长,国家间不平等性在近几十年来实际有所降低——而在于国家内部的不平等性,有时也被称为收入差异。

一个原因是不平等性的问题确实存在,并且在很多地方还在恶化。近几十年中,财富和收入越来越像顶层(即所谓的1%)集中,而许多发达国家的穷人和中产阶级的真实收入和生活水平陷入了停滞甚至倒退。

2008年全球金融危机前便已如此,但危机及其后果(包括长时间的高失业率)让情况变得更糟。此外,尽管存在北欧和一些拉美国家的显著例外,但不平等性的增加同时影响了发达国家和发展中国家。

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