Richard Dawkins mrccos/Flickr

理查德•道金斯的法律错觉

普罗旺斯地区艾克斯——理查德·道金斯是我们这个时代最伟大的思想家之一;但在其刚刚出版的回忆录黑暗中的一缕烛光:我的科学生涯中,他指出伟大的思想家离开其自身专业领域时犯错也毫不稀奇。他以伟大的天文学家弗雷德·霍伊尔为例来证明自己的观点,霍伊尔的著作宇宙本质是半个世纪前的必备读物。但霍伊尔跨入生物学领域后却误入歧途。从科学转向法律的道金斯同样未能摆脱这一魔咒。

道金斯将法律看作一场拉锯战。一方“不管自己相信与否”以最坚定的方式提出一个命题,而对方当事人则雇人最大限度地反驳这一命题。结果不过是看哪方赢得这场拉锯战的胜利。他认为律师应该“坐下来审视证据,并试图确定到底发生了什么”才是更加“诚实人道”之举。

道金斯的观点有三个普遍问题。首先是所谓犯罪谬误。像很多人一样,道金斯一想到法律就先想到刑法问题。刑事审判占据了公众想象力的很大部分,但借用生物学的一个比喻——这只是法律这个复杂殿堂中的一个隔间而已。多数律师和法官从未踏入刑事法庭半步。

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