Dean Rohrer

Die sich immer noch entwickelnden Länder

SAN FRANCISCO – Nach den Turbulenzen an den Wertpapiermärkten der Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländer hören die Stimmen nicht auf, die das jahrzehntelange Wachstumswunder dieser Länder für tot erklären. Aber wenn kurzfristige Schwankungen mit dauerhaftem Niedergang verwechselt werden, ist dies eine grobe Fehleinschätzung der tatsächlichen Lage. Die Welle der Industrialisierung und Urbanisierung, die das Einkommen von Millionen von Menschen in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern steigert, ist noch nicht vorbei.

Tatsächlich übersehen die Pessimisten eine wichtige neue Antriebskraft für das anhaltende Wachstum in diesen Ländern: ihre immer mächtigeren und dynamischeren Unternehmen. Die Schwellenländer sind heute mehr als ein Sammelsurium neuer Konsumentenmärkte und reichlich vorhandener (und zunehmend qualifizierter) Arbeitskräfte. Sie sind außerdem die Heimat tausender neuer Unternehmen, von denen einige schnell groß werden und sich in ihren jeweiligen Bereichen zu Weltmarktführern entwickeln.

Wer hätte vor zwanzig Jahren gedacht, dass sich die Tata Group aus Mumbai zum größten privaten Industriearbeitgeber in Großbritannien entwickeln würde? Wer hätte die mexikanischen Unternehmen Cemex und Bimbo als jeweilige Marktführer in der Zement- und Brotproduktion der USA gesehen, oder wer hätte vermutet, dass Lenovo aus Peking einmal der weltweit größte PC-Hersteller sein würde? Die Verwandlung der weltweiten Unternehmenslandschaft beginnt gerade erst und wird das Wachstum in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern noch jahrelang antreiben.

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