Dean Rohrer

Pays émergents et entreprises émergentes

SAN FRANCISCO – Les turbulences des Bourses des pays émergents ont suscité une abondance de notices nécrologiques annonçant la fin de leur croissance miracle des dernières décennies. Mais prendre des difficultés à court terme pour un déclin final serait une grossière erreur. La vague d'industrialisation et d'urbanisation qui dope les revenus de millions de personnes dans les pays émergents n'est pas terminée.

Les pessimistes ignorent l'existence des nouveaux moteurs d'une croissance prolongée de ces pays : leurs entreprises qui sont de plus en plus puissantes et dynamiques. Aujourd'hui les pays émergents sont bien autre chose qu'un patchwork de marchés de biens de consommation et de main d'oeuvre abondante (et de plus en plus qualifiée). On y trouve des milliers de nouvelles entreprises, dont beaucoup sont en train de devenir des leaders importants au niveau mondial.

Il y a 20 ans, qui aurait imaginé que le groupe Tata de Bombay deviendrait le premier employeur industriel privé au Royaume-Uni, que les sociétés mexicaines Cemex et Bimbo deviendraient les leaders du marché américain (la première dans le secteur de la production de ciment et la seconde dans la fabrication de pain) ou qu'en informatique la compagnie chinoise Lenovo ferait concurrence à Hewlett-Packard à la tête des ventes de PC à l'échelle de la planète ? Nous n'en sommes qu'au début de la transformation du monde des affaires au niveau mondial, une transformation qui devrait stimuler la croissance dans les pays émergents au cours des prochaines années.

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