L'Europe a besoin de mobilité

Depuis ses débuts, l’Union européenne cherche à équilibrer le développement économique entre les nombreuses régions qui la composent. Ainsi, le traité de Maastricht parle de "développement global harmonieux". Mais aussi louable soit cet objectif, il n'est pas de "vérité scientifique" quant au "bon" niveau de disparité et à la bonne vitesse de convergence.

Néanmoins, il est intéressant de comparer les disparités économiques au sein de l'UE avec celles des USA pour évaluer la convergence régionale en Europe, ceci sans oublier que les USA sont un Etat-nation depuis plus de deux siècles, tandis que l'UE est au mieux une confédération de 27 pays dans le cadre d'une structure supranationale.

Portons d'abord un regard historique sur la partie occidentale de l'UE. En 1960, les disparités au sein de ce qui allait devenir l'Europe des Quinze étaient deux fois plus importantes qu'entre les Etats qui constituent les USA. Aujourd'hui, elles sont de l'ordre des disparités de revenus aux USA. Ces dernières ont diminué de 50% tant en valeur nominale en euros qu'en termes réels quand on prend en compte les différences de pouvoir d'achat.

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