Il Mito della Specializzazione

CAMBRIDGE – Alcune concetti sono intuitivi. Altri suonano così ovvi dopo che sono stat espressi che è difficile negare la loro verità. Sono potenti, perché hanno molte implicazioni non banali. Ti aprono un nuovo punto di vista sul mondo e delle possibilità d’azione inedite.

Una idea che appartiene a questa categoria è che le città, le regioni ed i paesi dovrebbero specializzarsi. Poiché non possono essere bravi in tutto, devono concentrarsi su ciò che sanno fare meglio - cioè, il loro vantaggio comparato. Dovrebbero fare un paio di cose molto bene e scambiarli con altri beni che sono fatti meglio altrove, sfruttando così i guadagni derivanti dal commercio.

Ma, anche se alcuni concetti appaiono intuitivi o evidenti, essi possono anche essere sbagliati e pericolosi. Come spesso accade, non è quello che non si sa, ma quello che erroneamente si pensa di sapere, che può far male. E l'idea che le città ed i paesi realmente si specializzano, e che quindi è consigliabile che si specializzino, è una di quelle idee molto sbagliate e pericolose.

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