Der Mythos der Spezialisierung

CAMBRIDGE – Manche Ideen sind intuitiv. Andere sind, wenn sie erst einmal ausgesprochen sind, so offensichtlich, dass es schwierig ist, das Wahre in ihnen zu leugnen. Sie sind gut, weil nicht all ihre Konsequenzen von vornherein offensichtlich sind. Sie ändern unsere Weltanschauung und unsere Taten.

Eine solche Idee ist die Vorstellung, dass sich Städte, Regionen und Länder spezialisieren müssen. Weil sie nicht in allem gut sein können, müssen sie sich auf das konzentrieren, was sie am besten können – also auf ihren Wettbewerbsvorteil. Sie müssen ein paar Sachen sehr gut können, und diese dann gegen andere Leistungen tauschen, die woanders besser gemacht werden, sodass die Marktchancen optimal genutzt werden können.

Aber auch wenn einige Ideen intuitiv oder offensichtlich sind, können sie trotzdem falsch und gefährlich sein. Wie so oft wird uns nicht zum Verhängnis, was wir nicht wissen, sondern was wir meinen zu wissen. Und die Idee, dass sich Städte und Länder tatsächlich spezialisieren und dass sie sich daher spezialisieren sollten, gehört zu diesen sehr falschen und sehr gefährlichen Ideen.

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