A economia vista pela perspectiva de um cérebro

CAMBRIDGE – No seu livro pioneiro de 2005, On Intelligence, Jeff Hawkins propõe um paradigma alternativo de como o cérebro humano funciona. Na sua opinião, o cérebro não é uma Máquina de Turing que manipula símbolos de acordo com uma tabela de regras, modelo em que se baseiam os computadores e a inteligência artificial. Em vez disso, o cérebro é uma memória hierárquica gigante que está constantemente a gravar o que percebe e a prever o que virá a seguir.

O cérebro faz previsões ao encontrar semelhanças entre os padrões de entradas sensoriais recentes e experiências anteriores armazenadas na sua vasta memória. Combina os sons fragmentários atuais, num mar de ruído, com uma canção conhecida ou o rosto de uma pessoa disfarçada com o dos vossos filhos. A ideia é semelhante à função de preenchimento automático na caixa de pesquisa do Google, por exemplo - adivinhando constantemente o que irá digitar, com base no que já digitou.

Para verem a hierarquia neste mecanismo, pensem que ao se perceber apenas algumas letras, consegue-se prever a palavra; quando se olha para algumas palavras, consegue-se adivinhar o que a frase significa, ou até mesmo o parágrafo. De facto, neste momento devem estar a supor até onde é que nos vou levar com este comentário. A hierarquia permite que se compreenda o significado, independentemente de a entrada no nosso cérebro ser feita através da leitura ou da audição. O cérebro é, portanto, uma máquina indutiva que prediz o futuro tendo como base o acto de encontrar semelhanças, a vários níveis, entre o presente e o passado.

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