Экономика неявного знания

КЕМБРИДЖ – Причина богатства почти всех богатых стран заключается в том, что они пользуются техническим прогрессом. Они переместили большую часть своей рабочей силы из сельского хозяйства в города, где ноу-хау легче распространяются. Их семьи имеют меньше детей, и обучают их более интенсивно, облегчая тем самым дальнейший технологический процесс.

Бедные страны должны пройти через аналогичные изменения, чтобы стать богатыми: сократить занятость в сельском хозяйстве, развить урбанизацию, иметь меньше детей, и дольше держать в школе тех детей, которые у них есть. Если они это сделают, откроется дверь к процветанию. И разве это уже не происходит?

Например, сравним Бразилию в 2010 году с Соединенным Королевством в 1960 году. Процент урбанизации Бразилии на 2010 год равен 83%, коэффициент рождаемости составил 1,8 ребенка на одну женщину, средний уровень образования рабочей силы равен 7,2 годам, а выпускники университетов составляют 5,2% потенциальных работников. Эти показатели лучше, чем в Соединенном Королевстве 1960 года. В то время процент урбанизации там составлял 78,4%, коэффициент рождаемости составлял 2,7, средний уровень образования был равен приблизительно 6 годам, а выпускники университетов составляли менее 2% потенциальных работников.

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