L'economia della conoscenza tacita

CAMBRIDGE – Quasi tutti i paesi ricchi sono diventati tali perché hanno saputo sfruttare il progresso tecnologico, trasferendo il grosso della propria forza lavoro dalla campagna verso la città, dove il know-how può essere condiviso più facilmente. Inoltre, un calo del numero dei figli per nucleo familiare ha fatto sì che questi ultimi potessero ricevere un'educazione più completa, cosa che, a sua volta, ha favorito lo sviluppo del progresso tecnologico.

Se vogliono arricchirsi, i paesi poveri dovranno seguire un percorso simile: ridurre l'occupazione agricola, favorire l'urbanizzazione, fare meno figli e tenerli a scuola il più a lungo possibile. Così facendo, si spalancheranno per loro le porte della prosperità. Ma questo non sta già avvenendo?

Confrontiamo, ad esempio, la situazione del Brasile nel 2010 con quella del Regno Unito nel 1960. Nel 2010, lo sviluppo urbano del Brasile era pari all'84,3%, il suo tasso di natalità era di 1,8 figli per famiglia, il livello d’istruzione medio della sua forza lavoro era di 7,2 anni, e i suoi laureati rappresentavano il 5,2% dei potenziali lavoratori. Questi indicatori sociali sono migliori di quelli del Regno Unito nel 1960, dove lo sviluppo urbano era pari al 78,4%, il tasso di natalità era del 2,7%, il percorso scolastico della forza lavoro durava in media sei anni, mentre i laureati rappresentavano meno del 2% dei potenziali lavoratori.

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