Неправильное измерение технологий

КЕМБРИДЖ – Нет ничего лучше, чем нечеткая речь, чтобы посеять хаос – или способствовать достижению консенсуса. Людвиг Витгенштейн утверждал, что философские загадки на самом деле являются всего лишь следствием неправильного использования языка. С другой стороны, искусство дипломатии заключается в том, чтобы найти слова, которые могут скрыть разногласия.

Одна из идей, с которой экономисты согласны почти единогласно, заключается в том, что, исключая полезные ископаемые, большая часть огромной разницы между доходами бедных и богатых стран объясняется не капиталом и не образованием, а, скорее, «технологией». Так что же такое технология?

Ответ поясняет необычный консенсус среди экономистов, относительно того, что «технология» измеряется, как своего рода категория «ничего из перечисленного», как остаток – лауреат Нобелевской премии Роберт Солоу назвал это «совокупной производительностью факторов» ‑ остающийся необъясненным после учета других входных параметров производства, таких как физический и человеческий капитал. Как Мозес Абрамовиц четко отметил в 1956 году, этот остаток ‑ не более чем «мера нашего незнания».

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