La véritable matière première d’un développement prospère

TIRANA – Les pays pauvres de la planète exportent principalement des matières premières, de type cacao, minerai de fer, ou encore diamants bruts. De leur côté, les pays les plus développés procèdent – bien souvent en direction de ces mêmes États – à l’exportation de marchandises plus élaborées, telles que chocolat, automobiles et autres bijoux. Or, s’ils entendent atteindre la prospérité, il s’agirait en principe pour les pays du Sud de cesser d’exporter leurs ressources sous une forme brute, et de s’attacher à leur conférer une valeur ajoutée. À défaut, les États les plus fortunés continueront de se tailler la part du lion, s’accaparant l’ensemble de la valeur et des emplois les plus enviables.     

Il serait possible pour les pays pauvres de s’inspirer des exemples de l’Afrique du Sud et du Botswana, qui tirent parti d’une richesse de ressources selon une démarche consistant à forcer l’industrialisation, en limitant les exportations de minerais sous leur forme brute (politique localement connue sous le nom de « bénéficiation »). Mais s’agit-il pour autant d’exemples à suivre ?      

Certaines initiatives aboutissent en fin de compte au pire : elles se révèlent castratrices, dans la mesure où elles interprètent le monde d’une manière consistant à accentuer les problématiques secondaires – telles que la disponibilité des matières premières – ainsi qu’à aveugler les sociétés à travers la promesse de meilleures opportunités en d’autres lieux.

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