Margaret Scott

Uma Europa da Solidariedade, Não Apenas da Disciplina

BERLIM – Originalmente, a União Europeia era o que os psicólogos chamam de “objecto fantástico”, um objectivo desejável que inspira a imaginação das pessoas. Eu encarava-a como a materialização de uma sociedade aberta – uma associação de estados-nação que abdicaram de parte da sua soberania por um bem comum e que formaram uma união onde nenhuma nação ou nacionalidade dominavam.

A crise do euro, no entanto, transformou a União Europeia em algo radicalmente diferente. Os países-membros dividem-se agora em duas classes – credores e devedores – com os credores no comando. Como é o país maior e mais digno de crédito, a Alemanha ocupa uma posição dominante. Os países devedores pagam substanciais prémios de risco para financiar a sua dívida pública, o que se reflecte nos seus elevados custos genéricos de financiamento. Isto empurrou-os para uma espiral deflacionária e colocou-os numa posição de substancial – e potencialmente permanente – desvantagem competitiva relativamente aos países credores.

Este resultado não é o reflexo de um plano deliberado, mas antes de uma série de erros políticos. A Alemanha não procura ocupar uma posição dominante na Europa, e está relutante em aceitar as obrigações e responsabilidades que uma tal posição acarreta. Chame-se a isto a tragédia da União Europeia.

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