Margaret Scott

Für ein Europa der Solidarität, nicht nur der Disziplin

BERLIN – Ursprünglich handelte es sich bei der Europäischen Union um ein von Psychologen so bezeichnetes „fantastisches Objekt“, ein erstrebenswertes Ziel, das die Vorstellungskraft der Menschen beflügelt. Ich betrachtete sie als Inbegriff einer offenen Gesellschaft - eines Zusammenschlusses von Nationalstaaten, die einen Teil ihrer Souveränität zugunsten des Gemeinwohls aufgaben und eine Union bildeten, in der keine Nation oder Nationalität das Sagen hatte.

Durch die Eurokrise entwickelte sich die Europäische Union jedoch in eine grundlegend andere Richtung. Die Mitgliedsländer sind mittlerweile in zwei Klassen gespalten – in Gläubiger und Schuldner – wobei die Gläubiger den Ton angeben. Als größtes und kreditwürdigstes Land nimmt Deutschland eine vorherrschende Position ein.  Die Schuldnerländer zahlen beträchtliche Risikoprämien, um ihre Schulden zu finanzieren und das spiegelt sich auch in den hohen Kreditkosten für ihre Ökonomien wider. Diese Entwicklung hat sie in eine deflationäre Spirale gestürzt und ihnen einen – möglicherweise dauerhaften – Wettbewerbsnachteil gegenüber den Gläubigerländern eingebracht.

Dabei handelt es sich nicht um das Ergebnis eines vorsätzlichen Plans, sondern um die Folgen einer Reihe politischer Fehler. Deutschland hat seine Vorrangstellung in Europa nicht angestrebt und zögert nun, die mit einer derartigen Position verbundenen Verpflichtungen und Verbindlichkeiten zu akzeptieren. Man kann das als Tragödie der Europäischen Union bezeichnen.  

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