Die Wiederbelebung des Quartetts

Im Anschluss an die Bildung einer palästinensischen Einheitsregierung zwischen Fatah und Hamas und die Gipfelkonferenz der Arabischen Liga, die König Abdullahs Friedensplan aus dem Jahr 2002 wiederbelebt hat, ist es an der Zeit für das so genannte Nahost-Quartett, bestehend aus der Europäischen Union, Russland, den Vereinten Nationen und den Vereinigten Staaten aktiv zu werden. Das Quartett hat seit dem Jahr 2000 keine Initiativen auf den Weg gebracht, da ein Friedensprozess Verhandlungen zwischen den Konfliktparteien voraussetzt.

Stattdessen hat die Region eine Politik unilateraler Schritte erlebt. Einige Maßnahmen – Israels unilateraler Abzug aus dem Libanon im Jahr 2000 sowie aus dem Gazastreifen im Jahr 2005 oder der einjährige Waffenstillstand der Hamas – können als konstruktiv verstanden werden. Doch wie positiv ihre Ziele auch waren, diese Schritte wurden unternommen, ohne die gegnerische Seite zu konsultieren und haben so die Überzeugung verstärkt, dass es auf der anderen Seite keinen Partner gebe.

Im Sommer 2006 haben der Libanon-Krieg und Israels erneute Besetzung des Gazastreifens das Scheitern des Unilateralismus verdeutlicht. Heute wissen wir, dass nur ein politischer Prozess, der die legitimen nationalen Interessen jeder Partei berücksichtigt, das Risiko erneuter gewaltsamer Konfrontationen im Nahen Osten einschränken kann.

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