Ressusciter le Quartet

À la suite de la formation d’un gouvernement d’union nationale entre le Fatah et le Hamas, et du sommet de la Ligue arabe qui a remis le plan de paix de 2002 du roi Abdullah sur le devant de la scène, le groupe de médiateurs internationaux appelé le Quartet et composé de l’Union européenne, de la Russie, des Etats-Unis et des Nations unies, doit être ressuscité. Le Quartet était pour ainsi dire en sommeil depuis 2000, étant donné que tout processus de paix nécessite des négociations entre les parties en conflit.

Au lieu de négociations, la région a surtout connu une succession de décisions unilatérales. Certaines mesures, comme le retrait unilatéral d’Israël du Liban en 2000 et de la bande de Gaza en 2005, ou le cessez-le-feu d’un an du Hamas, peuvent être perçus comme des gestes constructifs. Mais même si ces mesures ont un objectif positif, elles ont été prises sans consultation de la partie adverse et ont ainsi renforcé la perception qu’il n’y avait pas de partenaire.

À l’été 2006, la guerre au Liban et la réoccupation de la bande de Gaza par Israël ont démontré l’échec de l’unilatéralisme. Aujourd’hui, il est évident que seul un processus politique qui tienne compte des intérêts nationaux légitimes des parties prenantes peut réduire le risque d’un nouvel embrasement du Proche-Orient.

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