Renovación del milagro sudcoreano

SEÚL – El presidente entrante de Corea del Sur, Park Geun-hye, dirigirá un país que ha sido un modelo de desarrollo económico para el mundo. Sin embargo, con la desaceleración de la economía, se ha convertido en un modelo que debe renovarse.

El llamado “milagro del río Han” se originó con las reformas iniciadas por el fallecido padre de Park, Park Chung-hee, que dirigió el país durante gran parte de los años sesenta y setenta. El éxito sudcoreano se debe a que fue el primer país que transitó de ser recipiente de ayuda de la OCDE a convertirse en donador, con un PIB actual per cápita superior a 30,000 dólares (en términos de paridad de poder adquisitivo).

Sin embargo, la fórmula de crecimiento que durante largo tiempo sustentó el éxito sudcoreano –una forma de capitalismo guiado por el Estado, centrado en manufacturas orientadas a la exportación– ya no está sirviendo a muchos sudcoreanos. El PIB se ha casi triplicado en los últimos veinte años, pero como el incremento de los salarios reales ni siquiera es del cincuenta por ciento de dicho aumento, el crecimiento se ha desvinculado de las opciones de los ciudadanos comunes.

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