Die Erneuerung des südkoreanischen Wunders

SEOUL – Südkoreas designierte Präsidentin Park Geun-hye übernimmt ein Land, das weltweit als Vorbild für Wirtschaftsentwicklung gilt. Doch angesichts einer sich verlangsamenden Wirtschaft bedarf es einer Erneuerung dieses Vorbilds.  

Das so genannte „Wunder vom Han-Fluss“ begann sich mit jenen Reformen zu entfalten, die Parks verstorbener Vater Park Chung-hee einleitete, der das Land über weite Strecken der 1960er und 1970er Jahre regierte. Ein Maß für den Erfolg Südkoreas ist die Tatsache, dass es sich als erstes Land von einem Empfänger von OECD-Hilfen zu einem Geber wandelte, wobei das Pro-Kopf-BIP heute über 30.000 Dollar beträgt (gemessen an der Kaufkraftparität).

Doch die Wachstumsformel, die den südkoreanischen Erfolg lange Zeit untermauerte – eine Form des staatlich gelenkten Kapitalismus mit Schwerpunkt auf exportorientierter Produktion – funktioniert für viele Südkoreaner nicht mehr. Das BIP hat sich zwar in den letzten 20 Jahren beinahe verdreifacht, aber da die Reallöhne um weniger als die Hälfte dieses Werts stiegen, entkoppelte sich das Wachstum von dem Schicksal der gewöhnlichen Bürger.   

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