Armend Nimani/AFP/Getty Images

Più sicurezza per tutti in Europa-Per un rilancio del controllo degli armamenti

BERLIN – La sicurezza dell’Europa è minacciata. Mentre alcuni anni fa questo potevamo appena immaginarcelo, oggi la preoccupazione per la sicurezza dell’Europa si colloca in primissimo piano nella nostra agenda politica.

Già prima del conflitto in Ucraina si era fatta di nuovo percepire una contrapposizione tra i blocchi a lungo ritenuta superata. Non più come antagonismo tra comunismo e capitalismo, bensì come confronto sul giusto ordine sociale – su libertà, democrazia, stato di diritto e diritti umani – e come competizione per le sfere di influenza geopolitiche.

Annettendo la Crimea contro il diritto internazionale, la Russia ha messo in questione i principi fondamentali dell’architettura della pace europea. Le strutture dei conflitti sono cambiate drammaticamente: acquistano importanza forme ibride di contrapposizione e soggetti non statali. Le nuove tecnologie celano anche nuovi pericoli: capacità cibernetiche offensive, droni armati, robotica, sistemi di combattimento elettronici, armi laser e a distanza. I nuovi scenari operativi – unità più piccole, maggiore forza d’urto, dislocazione più rapida – non vengono contemplati dagli attuali regimi di trasparenza e controllo. Si rischia una nuova, pericolosa spirale di riarmo.

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