Armend Nimani/AFP/Getty Images

Davantage de sécurité pour tous en Europe - pour une relance de la maîtrise des armements

BERLIN – La sécurité de l’Europe est menacée. Alors qu’elles nous semblaient pratiquement impensables il y a encore quelques années, ces craintes pour la sécurité de l’Europe sont aujourd’hui une de nos préoccupations politiques les plus pressantes.

Avant même que n’éclate le conflit en Ukraine, on avait pressenti le retour d’une confrontation entre blocs que l’on croyait depuis longtemps surmontée. Elle ne se manifeste plus par un antagonisme entre le communisme et le capitalisme, mais par un affrontement sur le bon ordre social – sur la liberté, la démocratie, l’État de droit et les droits de l’homme – et par une lutte pour les sphères d’influence géopolitique.

En annexant la Crimée en violation du droit international, la Russie a remis en cause les principes fondamentaux de l’architecture de paix européenne. La structure des conflits a profondément changé, avec une montée en puissance des formes hybrides de confrontation et des acteurs non étatiques. Les nouvelles technologies sont aussi porteuses de nouveaux risques : cyber-capacités offensives, drones de combat, robotique, moyens de combat électronique, armes laser ou missiles tirés à distance de sécurité. Les nouveaux scénarios opérationnels, avec des unités de plus petite taille, une puissance de frappe plus élevée, une plus grande rapidité de déploiement, échappent aux régimes de transparence et de contrôle actuels. Une course aux armements, dangereuse et d’un type nouveau, risque de se mettre en place.

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