Haciendo frente al revisionismo de Rusia

MADRID – Para algunos países, la derrota militar o política es tan intolerable y humillante que harán lo que sea para dar vuelta al que consideran es un orden internacional injusto. Una de esas potencias revisionistas fue Egipto, que se empeñó en recuperar la Península del Sinaí tras haberla perdido en la derrota de 1967 ante Israel. Acabó lográndolo, pero solo después de que el Presidente Anwar Sadat adoptara una estrategia de paz con el gesto de viajar a Jerusalén. Sin embargo, el caso más ominoso fue Alemania en los años 30, cuando destrozó sistemáticamente el orden europeo surgido tras la Primera Guerra Mundial.

La historia sugiere que existen dos vías para disciplinar a una potencia revisionista. La primera es oponérsele con igual fervor, como el que permitió a las potencias europeas derrotar a Napoleón en 1815 y a los Aliados vencer a Alemania en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La segunda es cuando alcanza sus límites en lo militar y económico, como ocurrió con la Unión Soviética en los años de su desintegración.

En ese punto, el país puede escoger entre reconciliarse con el orden internacional, como hiciera Alemania, o desarrollar una estrategia revanchista, como ha decidido el Presidente de Rusia, Vladimir Putin, para subvertir el orden posterior a la derrota soviética en la Guerra Fría.

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