La nueva puesta a punto del motor franco-alemán de Europa

BERLIN – Que la presidencia francesa de la UE, que comienza el mes próximo, resulte o no exitosa dependerá, en gran medida, de si se puede reavivar la cooperación franco-alemana. En esa era aparentemente terminada hace tiempo, las iniciativas comunes para Europa eran la regla, y una propuesta franco-alemana normalmente representaba un compromiso aceptable para toda Europa. El Tratado de Maastricht de 1992 probablemente fue la última obra maestra de la creatividad franco-alemana.

Pero luego los dos países se distanciaron cada vez más el uno del otro. Francia nunca se comprometió de manera entusiasta en el proceso de expansión, mientras que la creación del euro derivó en serias tensiones franco-germanas entre 1993 y 1999. La decisión de Francia de abandonar la conscripción militar en 1996 y al mismo tiempo presionar a favor de las pruebas nucleares hizo poco por mejorar la relación. Los últimos años de la presidencia de Jacques Chirac produjeron básicamente un estancamiento, coronado en mayo de 2005 por el voto francés por el “No” al borrador del tratado internacional de la UE.

Por supuesto, el motor franco-alemán no puede funcionar como antes. El comportamiento arrogante de los dos países –por ejemplo, al criticar los regímenes tributarios en Europa del este mientras que ellos no lograban cumplir con el Pacto de Estabilidad y Crecimiento de la Unión Europea- consternó a otros países de la UE, especialmente a los miembros más nuevos. Lo mismo sucedió con su aseveración arrogante de que ellos solos entienden la “Europa política” y, por lo tanto, cerrarían acuerdos –como aquel sobre agricultura en octubre de 2002- bilateralmente.

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