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Надвигающееся фиаско пенсионной системы

ЛОНДОН – Если бы развитые страны действовали рационально и в интересах избирателей, которые понимают, на что расходуются их налоговые платежи, они бы установили пенсионный возраст на уровне 70 лет или выше. Однако в большинстве развитых стран пенсионный возраст ниже, и, несмотря на некоторый прогресс, пройдут десятилетия, прежде чем этот уровень будет достигнут. Тем временем, в западных странах с сильной системой социального обеспечения будет сохраняться финансовая нестабильность, больная экономика и напряжённая политическая ситуация.

Демографическое старение является социальным и экономическим эквивалентом изменения климата. Мы все понимаем, что эту проблему надо решать, но мы бы предпочли переложить её решение на плечи будущих поколений. Стремление отложить эти вопросы на потом является понятным, учитывая нынешние экономические и политические трудности. Но в случае с государственными пенсиями подобная прокрастинация обходится очень дорого, причём даже дороже, чем в случае с глобальным потеплением.

В 1970 году средний эффективный пенсионный возраст для французского работоспособного мужчины был равен 67 годам, что примерно соответствовало продолжительности жизни мужчин в то время. Сейчас эффективный пенсионный возраст во Франции – чуть менее 60 лет (официально он равен 65 годам, но на практике государственные пенсии можно начать получать раньше), при этом продолжительность жизни мужчин достигла почти 83-х лет.

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