Reevaluar la soberanía

Durante 350 años, la soberanía –la noción de que los estados son actores centrales de la escena mundial y que los gobiernos son esencialmente libres de hacer lo que deseen dentro de su propio territorio, pero no dentro del de otros estados- ha sido el principio organizador de las relaciones internacionales. Ha llegado el momento de reevaluarlo.

Los más de 190 estados del mundo hoy coexisten con un gran número de actores no soberanos que son independientes en parte (y que, a menudo, lo son en gran medida), desde corporaciones a organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG), desde grupos terroristas a carteles de la droga, de institucionales regionales y globales a bancos y fondos de capitales privados. El estado soberano resulta influido por ellos (para bien y para mal), del mismo modo como es capaz de ejercer su influencia. Hay una erosión del cuasi monopolio que una vez tuvieron las entidades soberanas.

Como resultado, se necesitan nuevos mecanismos de gobierno regional y global que incluyan a actores no estatales. Esto no quiere decir que Microsoft, Amnistía Internacional o Goldman Sachs tengan que recibir escaños en la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas, pero sí significa incluir representantes de estas organizaciones en las deliberaciones regionales y globales cuando tengan la capacidad de afectar el modo en se pueden enfrentar los retos surgidos a esos niveles.

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