主権を再考する

350年の間、主権‐国家が世界という舞台における主役アクターであり、そして政府は自国の領域内では本質的に思うままに行動する自由があるが、他国の領域ではその自由はないという観念‐は国際社会を編成する上での原則を示してきた。いま、この観念を再考すべき時が来ている。

現在、世界には190の国家‐そして、多数のパワフルかつ非独立、あるいは部分的に(そして多くの場合、大規模な)独立したアクターと共存する国々がある。その形態は、法人から非政府組織(NGO)、テロリスト団体から麻薬組織、あるいは地域・国際機関から銀行・未公開株式ファンドまでなど、多岐にわたる。主権国家がこれらのアクターへ影響を及ぼすことができるのと同様に、彼らからも(良い方向にも悪い方向にも)影響を受ける。かつて、主権が享受したほぼ独占的な権力が、徐々に失われつつある。

結果として、地域的・国際的統治には、国家以外のアクターを含む新たな仕組みが必要である。これは、マイクロソフト、アムネスティ・インターナショナル、あるいはゴールドマン・サックスなどに国連総会の議席を与えるという議論ではないが、地域的・国際的挑戦が達成されるか、またどうすれば達成されるかという問題に影響を及ぼす力があるならば、このような組織の代表者を地域的・国際的な審議に加えるということを意味する。

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