Repenser la souveraineté

Depuis 350 ans, la souveraineté – concept selon lequel d’une part, les États sont les acteurs principaux sur la scène mondiale et d’autre part, les gouvernements sont essentiellement libres de faire ce qu’ils veulent sur leur propre territoire, mais ne peuvent agir sur le territoire des autres États – a fourni le principe d’organisation des relations internationales. Le moment est venu de repenser totalement ce concept.

Les quelque 190 États du monde coexistent désormais avec un grand nombre d’acteurs puissants et non-souverains au moins partiellement (voire complètement) allant des entreprises aux organisations non-gouvernementales (ONG), des groupes terroristes aux cartels de la drogue, des institutions régionales et mondiales aux banques et aux fonds de capitaux privés. L’État souverain subit leur influence (pour le meilleur et pour le pire) autant qu’il peut lui-même les influencer. Le quasi-monopole du pouvoir dont jouissaient autrefois les États souverains est de plus en plus limité.

Il en résulte que nouveaux mécanismes sont désormais nécessaires pour une nouvelle gouvernance régionale et mondiale impliquant d’autres acteurs que les États. Cela ne signifie pas qu’il faille attribuer des sièges à Microsoft, Amnesty International ou Goldman Sachs à l’assemblée générale des Nations-Unies. Cela veut dire, en revanche, qu’il est nécessaire d’inclure les représentants de telles organisations dans les discussions régionales et mondiales lorsqu’ils ont le pouvoir d’influer ou non sur la manière de répondre aux défis régionaux et mondiaux.

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