American shoppers Kris Connor/Stringer

生产率增长再思考

伯克利—如今,全世界人口平均比漫长的农业时代富裕20倍左右。从公元前7000年到公元1500年间,资源十分稀缺,技术进步非常缓慢,马尔萨斯压力几乎将人类数量一直抑制在生存线上下,人均日收入用今天的标准衡量不到1.50美元。

2017年,全世界只有大约7%的人口仍然那么穷。试想一下这样的情景:我们把目前生产出来的全部货币价值用于购买每天生活费1.50美元的人日常消费的商品和服务。平均每天的全球产出价值将是每人30美元(以当前价格计算)。

即我们今天的全球年收入大约在80万亿美元。尽管全球生产率的果实绝不是平均分配的,但当今社会的总体财富是我们的农业时代祖先无法想象的。

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