Margaret Scott

Una nueva concepción de la reducción de la pobreza

NUEVA YORK – El año pasado, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación anunció que el número de personas hambrientas en el mundo había aumentado a lo largo del pasado decenio. En 2008, el Banco Mundial anunció una reducción importante del número de pobres hasta el año 2005, pero, si se define la pobreza principalmente desde el punto de vista del ingreso de dinero necesario para evitar el hambre, ¿cómo se pueden conciliar anuncios así?

Según la muy citada línea internacional de la pobreza del Banco Mundial, que se revisó en 2008 para fijarla en 1,25 dólares en precios de 2005, aún hay 1.400 millones de personas que viven en la pobreza, cuando en 1981 eran 1.900 millones. Sin embargo, como China ha representado la mayor parte de esa reducción, en 2005 había al menos 100 millones más de personas que vivían en la pobreza fuera de China que en 1981.

En el África subsahariana y en algunas zonas de Asia, la pobreza y el hambre siguen pertinazmente elevados. Los organismos internacionales calculan que más de 100 millones de personas se hundieron en la pobreza a consecuencia de unos precios más altos de los alimentos durante el período 2007-2008 y que la crisis económica y financiera mundial del período 2008-2009 provocó un aumento de otros 200 millones. El retraso en la recuperación de los puestos de trabajo destruidos por la recesión mundial sigue siendo un imperativo de la mayor importancia para reducir la pobreza en los próximos años.

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