Repensar a Fome

ROMA – O mundo tem um problema de nutrição. Embora tenham sido feitos enormes progressos no sentido do Objectivo de Desenvolvimento do Milénio de reduzir, para metade, a proporção de pessoas subnutridas nos países em desenvolvimento, o problema permanece persistente, difundido, e complexo. Afinal, a questão vai para além do mero fornecimento de mais alimentos; os esforços eficazes para reduzir a subnutrição devem garantir que as pessoas têm acesso a quantidades suficientes dos tipos correctos de alimentos – aqueles que lhes conferem os nutrientes de que precisam, para terem vidas saudáveis e produtivas.

Desde 1945, a produção alimentar triplicou, e a disponibilidade de alimentos aumentou em 40%, em média, por pessoa. Só durante a última década, a produção de vegetais na região Ásia-Pacífico, onde se cultivam mais de três quartos dos vegetais do mundo, aumentou por um quarto.

Mas, apesar destes ganhos na expansão da oferta de alimentos, pelo menos 805 milhões de pessoas ainda têm fome todos os dias, das quais perto de 791 milhões vivem em países em desenvolvimento. Muitas mais têm fome sazonalmente ou intermitentemente. E mais de dois mil milhões de pessoas sofrem de “fome oculta” – a carência de um ou mais micronutrientes.

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