Riconsiderare il problema della fame

ROMA – Il mondo ha un problema di nutrizione. Nonostante siano stati fatti notevoli progressi verso l'Obiettivo di sviluppo del millennio che prevede il dimezzamento della percentuale di persone denutrite nei paesi in via di sviluppo, il problema resta radicato, diffuso e complesso. D'altronde, si tratta di ben altro che aumentare la fornitura di cibo: un impegno serio ed efficace per combattere la denutrizione deve assicurare che le persone abbiano accesso a una quantità sufficiente del giusto tipo di alimenti, cioè quelli che forniscono loro le sostanze nutritive di cui hanno bisogno per avere una vita sana e produttiva.

Dal 1945 la produzione alimentare è triplicata, mentre la disponibilità di cibo per persona è aumentata mediamente del 40%. Solo nell'ultimo decennio, la produzione di ortaggi nella regione dell'Asia-Pacifico, dove si coltivano più di tre quarti degli ortaggi mondiali, è aumentata di un quarto.

Tuttavia, malgrado questi incrementi nell'offerta di cibo, almeno 805 milioni di persone soffrono la fame ogni giorno, e di queste circa 791 milioni vivono in paesi in via di sviluppo. Molte di più soffrono la fame in alcuni periodi dell'anno o a periodi alterni. Infine, più di due miliardi di persone soffrono di "fame nascosta", cioè presentano una o più carenze di micronutrienti.

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