Anti-Povertà 2.0

ROMA – I leader globali hanno declamato il successo apparente di aver raggiunto nel 2010 – ben prima del target fissato nel 2015 – l’Obiettivo di Sviluppo del Millennio (Millennium Development Goals, MDG) di aver dimezzato il numero delle persone che viveva al di sotto della soglia di povertà nel 1990. Ma con tutta la povertà perdurante, la crescente disuguaglianza e la crescita debole di numerosi Paesi in via di sviluppo, il successo delle passate politiche e dei programmi anti-povertà appare dubbio.

Di fatto, al di fuori dell’Est asiatico, i progressi sono stati modesti, con un peggioramento della situazione in alcuni Paesi e regioni – malgrado alcune opportunità di crescita economica, un’espansione sostenuta in alcuni grandi Paesi in via di sviluppo e gli impegni presi nel 2000 dalla comunità internazionale nella Dichiarazione del Millennio, che ha portato agli MDG.

Questo mix di dati mette in discussione l’efficacia delle convenzionali politiche tese alla riduzione della povertà, spesso identificate con il Washington Consensus, che hanno trasformato il dibattito sulla povertà negli anni Ottanta. Le riforme del Washington Consensus, inclusa la stabilizzazione macroeconomica (definita come inflazione bassa a una cifra) e la liberalizzazione del mercato, avrebbero dovuto ridurre la povertà accelerando la crescita economica.

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