Anti-pauvreté 2.0

ROME – Les instances internationales font valoir l’atteinte apparente des cibles en 2010 – bien avant la date visée de 2015 – à savoir l’objectif du millénaire pour le développement de réduire de moitié le pourcentage de gens vivant en dessous du seuil de pauvreté de 1990. Pourtant, vu la pauvreté persistante, la montée des inégalités et la faible croissance dans bon nombre de pays en voie de développement, il semble que les politiques et les programmes anti-pauvreté du passé n’aient pas encore atteint leurs objectifs.

En fait, en dehors de l’Asie de l’Est, les progrès s’avèrent modestes, et dans certains pays et certaines régions la situation s’est même empirée – malgré plusieurs poussées de croissance économique, une expansion soutenue dans d’autres grands pays en voie de développement et des engagements publics par la communauté internationale dans la Déclaration 2000 du Millénaire qui a amené les objectifs du Millénaire.

Ces résultats mitigés remettent en cause l’efficacité des politiques conventionnelles de réduction de pauvreté, souvent associées au Consensus de Washington, qui a été transformé en discours sur la pauvreté dans les années 1980. Les réformes du Consensus de Washington – notamment la stabilisation macroéconomique (définie par un taux d’inflation très bas) et la libéralisation des marchés – étaient censées réduire la pauvreté en accélérant la croissance économique.

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