Op weg naar een nieuw beleid van armoedebestrijding

ROME – De wereldleiders hebben hoog opgegeven van het schijnbare succes dat al in 2010 – d.w.z. ruim vóór de deadline van 2015 – het Millennium Ontwikkelingsdoel is bereikt om het deel van de mensheid dat onder de armoedegrens leeft te halveren. Maar temidden van de aanhoudende armoede, stijgende ongelijkheid en tegenvallende groei in veel ontwikkelingslanden lijkt het succes van het anti-armoedebeleid twijfelachtig.

In feite is de vooruitgang buiten Azië bescheiden geweest, waarbij de situatie in een aantal landen en regio's is verslechterd – ondanks diverse groeispurts, de aanhoudende economische groei in een paar grote ontwikkelingslanden en de toewijding van de internationale gemeenschap aan de 2000 Millennium Declaration, die tot de formulering van de Millennium Ontwikkelingsdoelen heeft geleid.

Dit gemengde beeld roept twijfels op over de effectiviteit van het conventionele armoedebestrijdingsbeleid, dat dikwijls in verband wordt gebracht met de zogenoemde 'Washington Consensus,' waardoor het discours over de armoede in de jaren tachtig is bepaald. De door de Washington Consensus geïnspireerde hervormingen – zoals macro-economische stabilisatie (gedefinieerd als een inflatiepercentage onder de tien procent) en marktliberalisering – moesten de armoede terugdingen door de economische groei te versnellen.

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