Duncan Haldane conference Eduardo Munox Alvarez/Stringer

重建对专家的信任

发自伦敦——“为什么没人注意到这个状况?”英女王伊丽莎白二世在2008年11月金融危机爆发后曾经向伦敦经济学院众教授提出了这个著名的问题。十年过去了,在人们经历了过去12个月中种种特殊和不可预见事件——从英国脱欧公投到唐纳德·特朗普当选美国总统——之后,“专家”们又被问到了同样的问题。

广泛意义上的专家(而不仅仅是民意调查研究者和经济学家)一直是近期许多批评的目标。在一些人眼中,2010年爆发的欧元区危机就是一场对广大公众造成了惨痛后果的精英产物。在不当销售金融产品,全球货币操纵和伦敦银行同业拆放利率(简称Libor,一些银行向其他银行发放短期贷款所收取的基准利率)舞弊等丑闻纷纷曝光之后,一场关于从业人员操守的危机也令专家这个群体蒙羞。

所有这一切都加深了公众的疑虑:这个制度就是为专为那些永远无须承担责任的权贵设计的。人们对精英阶层可信性所持的怀疑态度也在英国公投和美国大选中越发浓厚。

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