Новый порядок развития Китая

ГОНКОНГ – В период с 1978 по 2012 годы ВВП Китая в среднем ежегодно увеличивался на 10% ‑ с 341 млрд до 8,3 трлн долларов США (в ценах 2012 года) – подняв в процессе более 500 миллионов китайцев из пропасти нищеты. Это во многом произошло за счет экспортно-ориентированной индустриализации и стратегии урбанизации, которая открыла новые возможности в новых, быстро растущих городах, где рабочая сила, капитал, технологии и инфраструктура объединились для того, чтобы сформировать потенциал сбыта для мировых рынков. По данным Глобального института Маккинси (McKinsey Global Institute), к 2025 году, 29 из 75 наиболее динамично развивающихся городов мира будут находиться в Китае.

Однако эта урбанизированная, экспортно-ориентированная модель роста создала больше проблем, чем она может справиться: пузыри собственности, пробки на дорогах, загрязнение, нестабильный внутренний государственный долг, земельная коррупция, а также социальные волнения, связанные с неравным доступом к социальному обеспечению. В результате, переход к новой модели роста, основанной на потреблении ‑ которая будет подчеркивать стабильность, открытость и устойчивость ‑ находится на верхних позициях повестки дня Китая. Китай ищет новый «порядок роста» для своих беспокойно растущих городов.

Нынешняя экономическая модель учитывает конфигурацию ключевых факторов производства ‑ земли, труда, капитала и совокупной производительности факторов производства (мера эффективности). Однако на выходе эта узкая направленность пренебрегает человеческим измерением экономики ‑ то есть тем, как рост влияет на жизнь обычных китайских граждан.

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