Le Renminbi est en route

LONDRES – Le prix Nobel Robert Mundell a dit un jour, « les grandes puissances ont de grandes monnaies ». Il semble que la Chine, dont Mundell a longtemps conseillé le gouvernement, ait pris cette notion à cœur, cherchant pendant de nombreuses années à convaincre le Fonds monétaire international d’ajouter le renminbi au panier de devises qui déterminent la valeur de l'actif de réserve du FMI, le droit de tirage spécial (DTS). Et voici que le FMI a effectivement décidé de le faire, ce qui équivaut à un énorme vote de confiance en la capacité de la Chine à jouer un rôle majeur dans la finance internationale.

De nombreux acteurs de marché, cependant, restent sceptiques quant à la décision. Est-ce que le renminbi appartient vraiment à la même catégorie que le dollar américain, l'euro, le yen japonais et la livre sterling dans le système monétaire international?

Sûrement, la Chine a fait des progrès remarquables au cours d'une période relativement courte. Depuis 2009, la part du commerce de la Chine libellée en renminbi a augmenté de moins de 1% à plus de 20%. Et le renminbi se classe maintenant au quatrième rang parmi les monnaies mondiales utilisées pour les paiements internationaux.

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