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¿Quién tiene espacio para las renovables?

LONDRES – Este verano, una subasta de energía eléctrica en Chile atrajo propuestas exitosas de generadores eólicos dispuestos a proporcionar electricidad a $ 0,04 por kilovatio hora y generadoras solares a $ 0,03 por kwh, superando fácilmente a sus competidores del ámbito de los combustibles fósiles. Su éxito refleja las grandes reducciones de costes que han ocurrido a lo largo de los últimos seis años, en que han bajado en cerca de un 70% y un 30%, para la energía solar y eólica, respectivamente. Es inevitable que lo sigan haciendo.

Por supuesto, no siempre el sol brilla ni el viento sopla, pero es cada vez más factible solucionar los problemas de intermitencia, a medida que bajan los costes de las baterías y otros sistemas de almacenamiento de energía, y los medidores y otros sistemas de control inteligente permiten cambiar la regulación de parte de la demanda. Hoy tenemos la certeza de que en unos 20 años, muchos países podrán obtener la mayor parte de su electricidad de fuentes renovables a un precio asequible.

No hay duda de que para los parques solares y eólicos se requieren grandes terrenos, pero a nivel global hay espacio de sobra.

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