Paul Lachine

تسخير طفرة التحويلات النقدية

روما ــ على مدى أكثر من عقد من الزمان، كانت اقتصادات آسيا في حركة دائبة ــ وكذلك كانت شعوب آسيا. فكان حجم الهجرة من المناطق الريفية إلى الحضرية وعبر الحدود الدولية غير مسبوق تاريخيا، وكانت آسيا القرن الحادي والعشرين مركزاً لها.

وفي دول آسيا النامية، كانت قوة التحويلات وإمكاناتها ــ الأموال التي يرسلها العمال المهاجرون إلى أسرهم في أوطانهم الأصلية (والكثير منها في مناطق فقيرة ونائية) هائلة. فحاليا، يشكل أكثر من 60 مليون عامل مهاجر من آسيا/منطقة المحيط الهادئ أكثر من نصف إجمالي التدفقات من التحويلات إلى الدول النامية، حيث أرسلوا إلى الديار نحو 260 مليار دولار أميركي في عام 2012.

والصين والهند والفلبين هي أكثر ثلاث دول تلقياً للتحويلات، في حين يأتي ترتيب بنجلاديش وإندونيسيا وباكستان وفيتنام أيضاً بين أعلى عشر دول. وغالباً تشكل هذه الأموال شريان حياة: فتشير بعض التقديرات إلى أن 10% من الأسر الآسيوية تعتمد على تحويلات تأتيها من الخارج للحصول على المأكل، والملبس، والمأوى.

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