Zum Gedenken an Zhao Ziyang

Die Umstände, unter welchen Zhao Ziyang aufgrund eines ohne jedes Recht verhängten 16-jährigen Hausarrests – in völliger Isolation von der chinesischen Gesellschaft – bis seinem Tode lebte, gereichen sowohl dem chinesischen Rechtssystem als auch der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas (KPCh) zur Schande.

Die Verfolgung Zhaos wandte sich gegen einen politischen Führer, der über ein Jahrzehnt lang wegweisende Anstrengungen unternahm, die die Grundlagen der chinesischen Wirtschaftsreform bilden sollten. In den späten 1970er Jahren hatten Chinas Kleinbauern aufgrund der Kollektivierung und der Gründung der Volkskommunen das Recht, Land zu besitzen, lange verloren. Sie sollten es niemals zurückerlangen. Zhao jedoch war der Erste, der sich dafür aussprach, den Bauern ihr Selbstbestimmungsrecht zurückzugeben, und der auf diese Weise erste Pilotversuche zur Abschaffung der Volkskommunen einleitete.

Die chinesische Industrie war durch Verstaatlichungen und Planwirtschaft zu einer Nebenstelle des Staates geworden. Zhao war der Erste, der zu einer „Ausweitung der Autonomie für die chinesischen Unternehmen“ und der „Wiederherstellung einer gesunden Beziehung zwischen Staat und Industrie“ aufrief. Die Ausweitung der Autonomie der Unternehmen und der Selbstbestimmung der Bauern waren kritische erste Schritte, deren Erfolg letztlich zu einer voll entwickelten Wirtschaftsreform führte.

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