追悼赵紫阳

赵紫阳去世了。凡是了解他的人,不管有没有见过面,都是赵紫阳的朋友,都在为他的去世悲痛。

中国的农民,在合作化和公社化中失去了土地,从此失去了对土地的支配权。在中国共产党的领导人中,赵紫阳第一个倡导“扩大农民自主权”,第一个进行撤消人民公社的试点。中国的企业,通过国有化和计划经济,变成了政府的附属品。又是赵紫阳,第一个提出“扩大企业自主权” ,“理顺政府和企业的关系”。从扩大经济主体的自主权,发展到经济体制的全面改革,是全中国人民挣脱毛泽东枷锁的胜利,赵紫阳作为国务院总理,为此倾注了十年心血。中国经济改革的最初十年,是不屈不挠健步渐进的十年,是全国城乡居民普遍受益的十年,是中国经济生活全面活跃从而开始持续起飞的十年。

一党专政的制度,使共产党的每一个错误都发展成为全国性和长期性的大灾难,它也是文化大革命的根源。为了中国的长治久安,赵紫阳向十三大提出了政治体制改革的方案。这个方案的长远目标,是民主的法律化和制度化,是在中国建立能够与市场经济互相支持的民主政治。这个方案的特殊意义是,在一党专制内部的最高层发出了不同的声音,而且得到了党的最高领导机关(全国代表大会)的批准。它提出的近期目标是有限的,但都是限制和约束党的权力的手段,有可能为平稳地还政于民创造条件。赵紫阳作为党的总书记,在夭折的二十个月的任期内,开辟了党中央政治局及其常委会不管案件审判、不审查文艺作品的局面,改变了企业以政党为中心的陋规,确立了法人代表在企业中的中心地位。令人惋惜的是,赵紫阳主持的政治改革,被扼杀了。作为拒绝民主的恶果,中国尚未发育的市场在恶性膨胀的党权的支配下,正在加速沿着权钱交易、官商勾结的腐败之路堕落。

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