追悼赵紫阳

赵紫阳去世了。凡是了解他的人,不管有没有见过面,都是赵紫阳的朋友,都在为他的去世悲痛。

中国的农民,在合作化和公社化中失去了土地,从此失去了对土地的支配权。在中国共产党的领导人中,赵紫阳第一个倡导“扩大农民自主权”,第一个进行撤消人民公社的试点。中国的企业,通过国有化和计划经济,变成了政府的附属品。又是赵紫阳,第一个提出“扩大企业自主权” ,“理顺政府和企业的关系”。从扩大经济主体的自主权,发展到经济体制的全面改革,是全中国人民挣脱毛泽东枷锁的胜利,赵紫阳作为国务院总理,为此倾注了十年心血。中国经济改革的最初十年,是不屈不挠健步渐进的十年,是全国城乡居民普遍受益的十年,是中国经济生活全面活跃从而开始持续起飞的十年。

一党专政的制度,使共产党的每一个错误都发展成为全国性和长期性的大灾难,它也是文化大革命的根源。为了中国的长治久安,赵紫阳向十三大提出了政治体制改革的方案。这个方案的长远目标,是民主的法律化和制度化,是在中国建立能够与市场经济互相支持的民主政治。这个方案的特殊意义是,在一党专制内部的最高层发出了不同的声音,而且得到了党的最高领导机关(全国代表大会)的批准。它提出的近期目标是有限的,但都是限制和约束党的权力的手段,有可能为平稳地还政于民创造条件。赵紫阳作为党的总书记,在夭折的二十个月的任期内,开辟了党中央政治局及其常委会不管案件审判、不审查文艺作品的局面,改变了企业以政党为中心的陋规,确立了法人代表在企业中的中心地位。令人惋惜的是,赵紫阳主持的政治改革,被扼杀了。作为拒绝民主的恶果,中国尚未发育的市场在恶性膨胀的党权的支配下,正在加速沿着权钱交易、官商勾结的腐败之路堕落。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/nyE9kQa/zh;
  1. Television sets showing a news report on Xi Jinping's speech Anthony Wallace/Getty Images

    Empowering China’s New Miracle Workers

    China’s success in the next five years will depend largely on how well the government manages the tensions underlying its complex agenda. In particular, China’s leaders will need to balance a muscular Communist Party, setting standards and protecting the public interest, with an empowered market, driving the economy into the future.

  2. United States Supreme Court Hisham Ibrahim/Getty Images

    The Sovereignty that Really Matters

    The preference of some countries to isolate themselves within their borders is anachronistic and self-defeating, but it would be a serious mistake for others, fearing contagion, to respond by imposing strict isolation. Even in states that have succumbed to reductionist discourses, much of the population has not.

  3.  The price of Euro and US dollars Daniel Leal Olivas/Getty Images

    Resurrecting Creditor Adjustment

    When the Bretton Woods Agreement was hashed out in 1944, it was agreed that countries with current-account deficits should be able to limit temporarily purchases of goods from countries running surpluses. In the ensuing 73 years, the so-called "scarce-currency clause" has been largely forgotten; but it may be time to bring it back.

  4. Leaders of the Russian Revolution in Red Square Keystone France/Getty Images

    Trump’s Republican Collaborators

    Republican leaders have a choice: they can either continue to collaborate with President Donald Trump, thereby courting disaster, or they can renounce him, finally putting their country’s democracy ahead of loyalty to their party tribe. They are hardly the first politicians to face such a decision.

  5. Angela Merkel, Theresa May and Emmanuel Macron John Thys/Getty Images

    How Money Could Unblock the Brexit Talks

    With talks on the UK's withdrawal from the EU stalled, negotiators should shift to the temporary “transition” Prime Minister Theresa May officially requested last month. Above all, the negotiators should focus immediately on the British budget contributions that will be required to make an orderly transition possible.

  6. Ksenia Sobchak Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    Is Vladimir Putin Losing His Grip?

    In recent decades, as President Vladimir Putin has entrenched his authority, Russia has seemed to be moving backward socially and economically. But while the Kremlin knows that it must reverse this trajectory, genuine reform would be incompatible with the kleptocratic character of Putin’s regime.

  7. Right-wing parties hold conference Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

    Rage Against the Elites

    • With the advantage of hindsight, four recent books bring to bear diverse perspectives on the West’s current populist moment. 
    • Taken together, they help us to understand what that moment is and how it arrived, while reminding us that history is contingent, not inevitable


    Global Bookmark

    Distinguished thinkers review the world’s most important new books on politics, economics, and international affairs.

  8. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin Bill Clark/Getty Images

    Don’t Bank on Bankruptcy for Banks

    As a part of their efforts to roll back the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, congressional Republicans have approved a measure that would have courts, rather than regulators, oversee megabank bankruptcies. It is now up to the Trump administration to decide if it wants to set the stage for a repeat of the Lehman Brothers collapse in 2008.