追忆古拉格

"没有什么比纪念碑更不起眼,",奥地利作家Robert Musil一百年前如是说。在俄罗斯帝国坍塌之后,我还要再加上一句:没有什么比无字碑更引人注目。

纪念碑是公众了解国家的介质。通过纪念碑,我们能感受到国家如何延续自己的传统。每当这种延续性被革命颠覆,人们就会对纪念碑发泄怒火。正如萨达姆·侯赛因的例子让我们认识到,推倒纪念碑比审问独裁者更加容易。不过,后革命期为人们提供了更多选择。有时候,新的纪念碑得以建立,有时候,旧的纪念碑回到原地,还有时候,纪念碑就像安息日的教授们一样,无所追寻。

尽管德国大学清除了大屠杀的否认者,俄国大学里却仍然雇佣了若干俄罗斯史教授,他们从不在讲课时提到古拉格。尽管成百上千万人成了纳粹德国和共产党俄国恐怖统治的牺牲品,人们对上述事件的记忆却大相径庭。后苏联时代,古拉格不为多数人知晓的最引人注目的纪念碑是500卢布纸币,它发行于20世纪90年代末,直到今天依然被广泛使用。

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